Staff Surgeon R. Watson published "Remarks on the geological appearances at and near the confluence of the Tugela and Buffalo or Umzinyati Rivers" in the Natal Government Gazette (Vol. 20, No. 1149, pp. 437-438) of 8 December 1868. He described sandstones underlain by shales, which in turn rested on igneous rocks, and some prospecting for gold in the area.