Rowland Gascoyne was a member of the (British) Institute of Mining Engineers in 1889-1890. Later he published papers on "Transvaal coal-fields" (Transactions of the Federated Institution of Mining Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1897) and "Coal-fields of Chili" (Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, 1898). In 1899 he was the superintendent of the Douglas Colliery and in that capacity offered the use of the mine to the government of the South African Republic should was break out. Shortly after the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) he was in the Transvaal, for in 1903 he participated in the discussion of a paper on the central South African coal-field, delivered by G.S. Corstorphine* before the Geological Society of South Africa. That same year he became a member of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa. He practised as a mining engineer in Johannesburg in 1905, but during 1906-1908 was the leaseholder of a coal mine on the Ermelo townlands.
In September 1912 Gascoyne contributed a comprehensive article on "The coalfields of South Africa" to the 21st anniversary number of the South African Mining Journal (pp. 363-382). He was still in South Africa in 1916-1917, when he contributed to the discussion of a paper on the Natal coalfields, delivered by W.T. Heslop* before the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa.