Charles James Hill Aitken (or Charles James Hill-Aitken) qualified as Doctor of Medicine (MD) at the University of Edinburgh in 1900. Soon thereafter he came to the Cape Colony, where he was licensed to practice on 26 November 1902. By 1907 he was practising in East London, where he remained until moving to Idutywa in the Transkei around 1911. He was still practising there in 1915.
Aitken contributed articles on a variety of topics to the South African Medical Record, for example, "Efficacy of diphtheria antitoxin" and "Natural process of cure in constipation" (1903/4, Vol. 1); "Bossi's dilator" and "Post-graduate study in South Africa" (1905, Vol. 3); and "Wound of the scrotum" (1908, Vol. 6). He was still active in 1916, when three articles by him appeared in the same journal: "Rheumatism?", "Feverishness in children", and "Twins and triplets". During the period 1905 to 1928 he also contributed a dozen or so articles to the British Medical Journal, including 'Illness following a tick bite' (1905) and several on the effects of nasal obstruction.