Bruno Schwarzbach (or Beheim-Schwarzbach) qualified as Doctor of Medicine (MD) at Wurzburg, Germany, in 1880 with a thesis entitled "Ueber Vorkommen und Behandlung von Augenkrankheiten in aussereurop?schen L?ndern (On the prevention and treatment of eye diseases in countries outside Europe; W?rzburg, 1880, 46p). That same year he became a Licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. He came to the Cape Colony in 1881, where he was licensed to practice in September that year. That same month he read a paper on "The human eye and how to guard it" before the South African Philosophical Society in Cape Town. The paper was not published. Years later he published two lectures under the title Consumption: how to avoid it, and weak eyes (London, 1897, 107p). He may have left the country for a number of years, for he is not listed in the medical directories of the Cape Colony in 1893 and 1897. In 1900 he applied for registration as a medical practitioner in Natal. It appears that he let this registration lapse, for he is not listed in the Natal medical register of 1904. However, in 1905, then residing in Durban, he applied for re-registration in Natal. He left for the Cape Colony again soon afterwards, for Bruno Beheim-Schwarzbach was listed as a medical practitioner in the Cape Colony, residing at East London, in 1907.